After the British House of Lords approved the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act on January 22, the act received Royal Assent from the Queen. The European Parliament approved the agreement on 29th January. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the ”Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contains a provision on a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below. The Withdrawal Agreement also contains provisions allowing the United Kingdom to let the United Kingdom link the Statute of the European Schools to the United Kingdom by the Convention and the accompanying rules for accredited European Schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. until the end of the 2020-2021 spring semester.  The transitional period is not extended. The UK has said it does not want an extension. The option of an extension has been included in the Withdrawal Agreement. The UK and the EU had until 1 July 2020 to agree on a possible extension. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially an agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, is a treaty of 24 October. Signature in January 2020 of a Treaty between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK), which sets out the conditions for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU and Euratom.
The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and to appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. The most important elements of the draft agreement are: On 17 October 2019, the UK and the EU reached an agreement on the terms of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU (Brexit) and on a transition period until 31 December 2020. The inclusion of the deal in the House of Commons ranged from cold to hostile and the vote was delayed by more than a month. Prime Minister May won a no-confidence motion against her own party, but the EU refused to accept further changes. The European Union and the United Kingdom reach a draft withdrawal agreement. The Declaration on the Future Relationship between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration negotiated and signed in conjunction with the binding and broader Withdrawal Agreement in the context of the Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (EU), colloquially known as Brexit, and the planned end of the transition period. The new relationship between the EU and the UK will start if an agreement has been reached that has been approved by EU member states, the European Parliament and the UK Parliament. On 15 November 2018, one day after the british government cabinet presented and supported the agreement, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Leaving the European Union.
 The UK Parliament decides that a further extension of the Brexit date is necessary as it wants to review the relevant legislation before voting on the Withdrawal Agreement. The British government then called on the EU to postpone the Brexit date to 31 January 2020. The other 27 EU member states are signalling their willingness to allow the UK to postpone its withdrawal (the UK is expected to join the EU on 29 September). March 2019). If the UK Parliament approves the withdrawal agreement by 29 March, Brexit will be postponed until 22 May to allow time for the necessary legislation to be passed. If the British Parliament has not approved the agreement by then, Brexit will be postponed to 12 April. Following an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MPs decided that the UK government had ignored Parliament by refusing to give Parliament all the legal advice it had received on the impact of its proposed withdrawal conditions.  The key point of the Recommendation concerned the legal effect of the ”backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the UK with regard to the EU-UK customs border and its impact on the Good Friday Agreement that had led to an end to the unrest in Northern Ireland – and in particular whether the UK would be safe, to be able to leave the EU in a practical sense, according to the proposed plans.
Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  EU leaders approve a postponement of the Brexit date to 31 January 2020 or earlier if the UK and European Parliaments have already approved the withdrawal agreement. The British Parliament rejects the agreement for the third time. .